This is a "short" list given to me by my piano teacher Bryan Boyce (DMA). With his permission, I post it here for those who want to have a general background of western classical music.

Vocal genres

Mass

Medieval Polyphony/Motet

Madrigal

Lieder

Opera

Instrumental Genres

Variations

Sonata

Sonatas, seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries

Sontas, mid-eighteenth century to present

Piano Character Pieces

String Quartet

Chamber Music

Symphony

Concerto

Program Music