Assignment 2:  Syntax Error Recovery

During the last assignment you probably encountered a wide variety of error messages.  The nature of these messages depends on both the language definition and the compiler or interpreter.  You may have noticed that across languages and implementations these messages differ greatly in their usefulness and specificity.  One feature common to all of the languages you used is syntax error recovery.  In the simplest sense, syntax error recovery is the mechanism by which a compiler or interpreter continues to parse a program (and find more syntax errors) after it encounters an instance of invalid syntax. 

Your task in this assignment is to implement syntax error recovery for an extended version of the calculator language discussed in the text and in class.  We are providing a basic scanner and parser (written in C).  Given this initial code base, you must:

  1. Translate the code we provide into C++.  Obviously, you must make any changes needed for the code to compile without errors under g++.  In addition, you must replace any calls to C libraries (e.g. for I/O) with the standard C++ equivalents (no printf!). 
  2. Extend the language with if and do/check statements, as shown in the grammar below. 
  3. Implement exception-based syntax error recovery, as described in Section 2.3.5 on the textbook’s companion site.  At the least, you should attach handlers to statements, relations, and expressions. 
  4. Output a syntax tree with the structure suggested (for a slightly different language) in Example 4.15 and Figure 4.12.  Your output should be in linear form, where every subtree is represented, recursively, by a parenthesized list or tuple in which the first element (immediately inside the parentheses) is the root, and the remaining elements are its children, in order.  More on this below.

When run, your program should read a calculator program from standard input, and then output either syntax error messages or a correct syntax tree. 

The initial source code for this assignment is available HERE.  As currently written, it prints a trace of predictions and matches.  You should disable that. 

Extended Language

Here is an LL(1) grammar for the calculator language, extended with if and do/check statements: 

P→  SL $$
SL→  S SL  |  ε
S→  id := R  |  read id  |  write R  |  if R SL fi  |  do SL od  |  check R
R→  E ET
E→  T TT
T→  F FT
F→  ( R )  |  id  |  lit
ET→  ro E  |  ε
TT→  ao T TT  |  ε
FT→  mo F FT  |  ε
ro→  ==  |  <>  |  <  |  >  |  <=  |  >=
ao→  +  |  -
mo→  *  |  /

Here the new nonterminal R is meant to suggest a “relation.”  As in C, a value of 0 is taken to be false; anything else is true.  The relational operators (==, <> [not equal], <, >, <=, and >=) produce either 0 or 1 when evaluated.  A do loop is intended to iterate until some check-ed relation inside it evaluates to false— “check R” is analogous to “if (!R) break” in C. 

As it turns out, if we assume that integers are unbounded, the extensions make the calculator language Turing complete (if still quite impractical).  As an illustration, here is a program that calculates the first n primes:

   read n
   cp := 2
   do check n > 0
       found := 0
       cf1 := 2
       cf1s := cf1 * cf1
       do check cf1s <= cp
           cf2 := 2
           pr := cf1 * cf2
           do check pr <= cp
               if pr == cp
                   found := 1
               cf2 := cf2 + 1
               pr := cf1 * cf2
           cf1 := cf1 + 1
           cf1s := cf1 * cf1
       if found == 0
           write cp
           n := n - 1
       cp := cp + 1

Note that while every check statement in this program is immediately inside the do, that need not in general be the case. 

AST output for the program might look like this:

  [ (read "n")
    (:= "cp" (num "2"))
      [ (check > (id "n") (num "0"))
        (:= "found" (num "0"))
        (:= "cf1" (num "2"))
        (:= "cf1s" (* (id "cf1") (id "cf1")))
          [ (check <= (id "cf1s") (id "cp"))
            (:= "cf2" (num "2"))
            (:= "pr" (* (id "cf1") (id "cf2")))
              [ (check <= (id "pr") (id "cp"))
                  (== (id "pr") (id "cp"))
                  [ (:= "found" (num "1"))
                (:= "cf2" (+ (id "cf2") (num "1")))
                (:= "pr" (* (id "cf1") (id "cf2")))
            (:= "cf1" (+ (id "cf1") (num "1")))
            (:= "cf1s" (* (id "cf1") (id "cf1")))
          (== (id "found") (num "0"))
          [ (write (id "cp"))
            (:= "n" (- (id "n") (num "1")))
        (:= "cp" (+ (id "cp") (num "1")))

Indentation is shown here for clarify, and need not be generated by your code.  The rest of the syntax is meant to mirror the likely internal structure of an AST in C++, and should be generated by your code.  The square brackets delimit lists, which have an arbitrary number of elements.  The parenthesis delimit tuples (structs), which have a fixed number of fields.  So, for example, an if node has two children: a relation and a body.  The relation is a tuple with exactly three children: an operator and two operands.  The body of the if is a list, whose elements are the statements that should be executed when the relation is true.  Program and do nodes have only one child each—a list. 


You do not have to build the syntax tree as an explicit data structure in your program in order to generate the right output.  You are welcome to build it if you want to, though, and extra credit options 3 and 4 (realized as separate, post-parsing traversals of the tree) will be easier if you do. 

We’ve given you a trivial Makefile.  You should add to it a target test that causes make to pipe sample calculator programs (of your choosing) into your parser.  This will make it easier for the TAs to reproduce your tests.  Extra credit will be given to students who provide particularly well designed test mechanisms in their submission. 

When match sees a token other than the one it expects, it could simply throw a syntax_error exception.  The resulting algorithm would recover by deletion only: the exception handler will delete tokens until it finds something in either the FIRST set or the FOLLOW set of the nonterminal corresponding to the current recursive descent routine.  An attractive alternative is to mirror Wirth’s recovery algorithm and have match insert what it expects and continue (presumably after printing an error message).  You may implement either strategy.  For extra credit (see below), try both and compare the results. 

Extra Work for CSC 454

Students in 454 must implement immediate error detection:  epsilon productions should be predicted only when the upcoming token is in the context-specific FOLLOW set. 

Division of labor and writeup

As in most assignments this semester, you may work alone or in teams of two.  Be sure to follow all the rules on the Grading page.  As with all assignments, use the turn-in script:  ~cs254/bin/TURN_IN on the csug machines.  Put your write-up in a README.txt or README.pdf file in the directory in which you run the script.  Be sure to describe any features of your code that the TAs might not immediately notice.  Note that only one turn-in is required per team, but each student must mail in the trivia separately. 

Extra Credit Suggestions

  1. If you are in CSC 254, complete the extra work for 454. 
  2. Compare deletion-only recovery (in which match throws syntax_error when it sees a token it does not expect) with a mixed strategy, in which match inserts what it expects.  Which approach seems to result in better recovery?  Why? 
  3. Implement a static semantic check to ensure that every check statement appears inside a do statement, and every do statement has at least one check statement that is inside it and not inside any nested do
  4. Extend the language with typed variable declarations, as described in Section 4.6, and implement type checking. 
  5. After parsing and checking, execute (interpret) the calculator program.
  6. Extend the calculator language in other interesting ways.  You might, for instance, add arrays, strings, for loops, or subroutines. 
  7. Generate equivalent output code in some existing language (e.g. C). 

Trivia Assignment

Before the beginning of class on Wednesday, September 20, each student should complete the T2 trivia assignment found on Blackboard


Sunday October 1, at 11:59 pm; no extensions. 
Last Change:  14 October 2019 / Michael Scott's email address