Automatic event detection from time series signals has wide applications, such as abnormal event detection in video surveillance and event detection in geophysical data. Traditional detection methods detect events primarily by the use of similarity and correlation in data. Those methods can be inefficient and yield low accuracy. In recent years, because of the significantly increased computational power, machine learning techniques have revolutionized many science and engineering domains. In particular, the performance of object detection in 2D image data has been significantly improved due to the deep neural network. In this study, we apply a deep-learning-based method to the detection of events from time series seismic signals. However, a direct adaptation of the similar ideas from 2D object detection to our problem faces two challenges. The first challenge is that the duration of earthquake event varies significantly; The other is that the proposals generated are temporally correlated. To address these challenges, we propose a novel cascaded region-based convolutional neural network to capture earthquake events in different sizes, while incorporating contextual information to enrich features for each individual proposal. To achieve a better generalization performance, we use densely connected blocks as the backbone of our network. Because of the fact that some positive events are not correctly annotated, we further formulate the detection problem as a learning-from-noise problem. To verify the performance of our detection methods, we employ our methods to seismic data generated from a bi-axial “earthquake machine” located at Rock Mechanics Laboratory, and we acquire labels with the help of experts. Through our numerical tests, we show that our novel detection techniques yield high accuracy. Therefore, our novel deep-learning-based detection methods can potentially be powerful tools for locating events from time series data in various applications.