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CS255/455 Spring 2009 How to Debug your compiler

  • Build a debuggable compiler
    Usually if we want to debug a program, we need to turn off all compiler optimizations and add '-g' flag when building the program. To build a debuggable GCC, just configure it normally and then make STAGE1_CFLAGS='-g -O0' all-stage1. However, in our project, at most time we only need to debug our own code, which is supposed to be in a single file gcc-4.2.2/gcc/cs255.c. So you can just build and install the compiler normally. Then each time after you modify cs255.c, build the compiler with make BOOT_CFLAGS='-O0 -g3'. This will go through the bootstrap steps. To further save compile time, you can go to obj/gcc directory and run make CFLAGS='-O0 -g3'. And don't forget to run make install.

  • Underneath gcc
    Actually, gcc you called when you do compilation is just a driver for real compiler cc1, assembler as and linker collect2. Use option -v you can see the exact command sequence. For direct debugging you should run gdb cc1.

  • Write a gdb command file
    After getting the command sequence by using gcc -v, you can write a gdb command file to save the typing when starting gdb. Here is an example of such file (your file location and parameters may be different).
          file /localdisk/bao/gcc/obj/gcc/cc1
          b rest_of_handle_cs255
          r -quiet -v ab.c -quiet -dumpbase ab.c -mtune=generic -auxbase-strip ab.o -O2 -version -fcs255 -fdump-tree-gimple -fdump-cs255-tree-gimple -o /tmp/cceaerqF.s
    Let's name this file as gdbfile, and then you can run gdb -x gdbfile to start debugging.

  • Get familiar with gdb commands
    Refer to gdb documentation on how to set break points, print the current call stack, examine variable values, and so on.
    • break [file:]func_name to set a break point; break [filename:]linenum to set a break point at a line; break ... if cond to stop only when cond evaluates to true; info break to print all breakpoints.
    • backtrace or bt to print the current call stack; frame n or f n to select a stack frame.
    • print variable to view variable value.
    • watch to set watchpoints and disable, enble or delete these points.
    • You can modify variable values and call program functions within the debugger, making it a good test environment for trying your coding ideas.
    • Some other reference: Debugging with GDB by Stallman, Pesch, Shebs, et al.

  • Run gdb in Emacs
    A nice feature of running gdb in Emacs is it can link a gdb window and source code window together. Stepping in gdb will move the cursor on the source code window as well. A useful trick is to create a soft link to your cc1 on your test case directory, and then you don't need to change your working directory in gdb back and forth.
    1. M-x gdb
    2. gdb --annotate=3 cc1.
    3. gdb has been started, so you can use it normally.

  • Dump gimple tree node in gdb
    Definitions of dump functions can be found in tree-dump.c and tree-pretty-print.c. Let node be a gimple tree node,
    • p debug_tree(node) can print some basic information about node;
    • p print_generic_stmt(stdout, node, 2) can print the generic form of node if it is a statement node, where 2 is the value of the macro TDF_SLIM;
    • p dump_node(node, 2, stdout) can dump details about node and its children.

  • Output gimple tree in c-like form: use option -fdump-tree-gimple
  • Output gimple tree in c-like form after the pass for cs255: use option -fdump-cs255-tree-gimple. This will actually print the gimple tree before and after cs255 transformation.


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Topic revision: r8 - 2009-01-28 - BinBao
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